Signup for our emails
Koster’s springsnail Juturnia kosteri
ESA status: endangered
Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Chaves County, New Mexico, is a place of unique ecological convergence, where the Chihuahuan Desert meets the shortgrass prairie and the Pecos River flows through the Roswell artesian basin. This wetland refuge is a haven for birds, and heaven for birders, who can seasonally enjoy thousands of migrating lesser sandhill cranes, Ross and snow geese, and about twenty duck species, as well as myriad songbirds and quail. Walking trails lead hikers through wetland thickets and along riverbanks, providing a peaceful getaway. But the Refuge’s most unique offering is available by appointment only...
The diverse waters of the Bitter Lake area—flowing streams, rivers, sinkholes, playa lakes, and brackish waters—shelter an incredible diversity of rare organisms. On the first Saturday of every month from October through May, you can take a guided Endangered Species Tour into parts of the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge that are closed to the public. In these closed sections, you will see Bitter Lake itself, the springs which are the source of the refuge’s lakes and ponds, and around 60 sinkholes, each one a unique habitat. It is on this tour that you may have your only chance to see the tiny, rare Koster’s springsnail.
This miniature snail, about the size of a pencil eraser (4 to 4.5 millimeters), is one member of the diverse freshwater snail family Hydrobiidae, which inhabit a great variety of specialized aquatic habitats. Hydrobiidae females are generally larger and longer-lived than males. Koster’s springsnail has specific habitat requirements: spring heads of 10 to 20°C and slow to moderate water velocity. It prefers a compact stream-bottom; deep organic silt or gypsum sands and gravel. It has a narrow, conical, whorled, pale tan shell. Koster’s springsnail is similar to another Bitter Lake resident, the Roswell springsnail, but can be distinguished by its nearly colorless operculum (the foot disk which closes the snail’s “door” when it retracts into its shell). Roswell springsnails have a dark amber operculum with white spiral streaks and are slightly smaller.
Koster’s springsnail likely evolved from one of the snail species that enjoyed a broader distribution during the wetter, cooler Pleistocene around 10,000 years ago. They have a short lifespan, only 9 to 15 months, and reproduce several times during that brief opportunity. They feed on algae, bacteria, and decaying organic material. This snail was originally found in Sago Spring at Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and another population was found in 1995 on private land east of Roswell. It was once present at other springs in the Roswell area, but those springs have dried up, apparently due to groundwater pumping. It is presently most abundant on the deep organic mulch at the bottom of Bitter Creek and in the Sago Springs complex at Bitter Lake. Aquifer depletion and contamination from development and oil and gas drilling in the Roswell Basin are the most important threats to this species. There are at least 190 oil wells surrounding Bitter Lake that could contaminate the aquifer that underlies the refuge.
Koster’s springsnail are important ecological barometers of water quality. They are very sensitive to oxygen levels, water temperature, sedimentation and contamination. Their disappearance usually indicates the loss or degradation of a pristine spring or watercourse. WildEarth Guardians fought to obtain protections this snail now enjoys under the Endangered Species Act, and we will continue to advocate for responsible water use and against the proliferation of oil and gas drilling and unsustainable development that threatens Bitter Lake. Our vision for the whole of the West, not just Bitter Lake, is that of clear streams and springs free of pollution and home to their full complement of unique inhabitants.
- Significant Actions
- February 2002 - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to list Koster’s springsnail as “endangered” with critical habitat
- August 2005 - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service finalizes the listing of Koster’s springsnail as “endangered” with critical habitat - critical habitat does not include the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge
- December 2007 - WildEarth Guardians and partners file suit to extend critical habitat protections to the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge
- March 2009 - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes revised critical habitat for Koster’s springsnail that includes the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge
- June 2010 - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service finalizes revised designation of critical habitat for Koster’s springsnail
- Press Releases
- December 20, 2002 - "Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Endangered Wildlife Threatened By Proposed Oil and Gas Development"
- April 30, 2003 - "WildEarth Guardians Files Appeal to Challenge the Bitter Lakes Habitat Protection Zone Environmental Assessment"
- May 1, 2003 - "Oil and Gas Development Threatens Bitter Lakes - WildEarth Guardians Appeal to Save Endangered Species and Unique Aquatic Habitat"
- October 21, 2003 - "Conservation Groups Challenge Oil and Gas Leasing In Areas Critical To New Mexico's Imperiled Wildlife"
- April 22, 2004 - "Conservationists Sue To Protect Snails, Shrimp And Water Quality in New Mexico and Texas - Rare Animals at Risk from Oil and Gas"
- October 19, 2004 - "Settlement To Protect Snails, Shrimp And Water Quality In New Mexico And Texas"
- September 28, 2005 - "Judge Sends Drilling Plan Near Bitter Lake Refuge Back to BLM - Government Rejects Industry Request to Ignore Impacts to Endangered Species"
- December 19, 2007 - "Suit Filed To Protect Endangered Species at Bitter Lake Refuge"
- January 13, 2009 - "Endangered Animals One Step Closer to True Refuge at Bitter Lake"
- March 12, 2009 - "Bitter Lake Proposed as Critical Habitat for Endangered Animals"
- June 6, 2011 - "Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge Receives Stronger Safeguards through the Endangered Species Act"
- Species Factsheet
- Related Campaigns